In the past decade the number of women living in poverty has increased disproportionately to the number of men, particularly in the developing countries. The feminization of poverty has also recently become a significant problem in the countries with econ
7 nov 2019
But what happens when the police closed down? Usually, there remains the threat and when should each be assessed on the basis of a risk analysis model. But what usually happens, unfortunately, that the woman withdraws and does not actively monitor their rights and usually get the consequences for both her and the children.
Violence against women and international law Discrimination and violence against women constitute serious violations of fundamental rights and freedoms. The concept of "due diligence" is central to the UN campaign to end violence against women and means that States have the responsibility and obligation to take all necessary measures to combat violence against women, regardless of who the perpetrator is. In addition, the State shall provide support and protection for abused women and their children. The concept of "due diligence" is well established in international law and several international and regional declarations, conventions and resolutions have been adopted to give women a full protection. * Common to these, in addition to the requirement that the state should refrain from exposing women to violence, are the state is also obliged to take positive measures to protect women and prevent them from being exposed to violence, whether violent crime occurs in the so-called public or private sphere. Violence against women must not under any circumstances be tolerated by the state. Men's violence against women is thus not a private matter, even if the perpetrator is a private person, but is a concern for the public. Sweden has ratified or acceded to all the conventions and protocols listed here.
UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) The Universal Declaration states that everyone has the right to live a life of equality, without discrimination and with equal protection of the law. Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person" Article 5 states that "No one shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment." The Convention on Civil and political rights (1966) Article 2 (1) of the UN Covenant on Civil and political rights states that "Each State Party undertakes to respect and to ensure to everyone who is present in its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the in the present Covenant rights without distinction of any kind such as on grounds of race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status ". International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) Article 3 of the UN Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights states that. "The States Parties undertake to ensure men and women the equal right to the enjoyment of economic, social and cultural rights, as enshrined in the Convention." The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979) Despite the fact that women's equal rights and rights enshrined in various human rights instruments of the early date, were seen within the UN that discrimination against women was widespread and extensive, which is why the General Assembly in December 1979 adopted the legally binding Convention on the elimination of all Forms of discrimination against women, known as CEDAW and CEDAW. Gender-based violence is not specifically addressed in the Convention. An Additional Protocol to CEDAW was adopted in 1999 which gives individuals or groups of individuals right of complaint to the committee that monitors states' compliance with CEDAW. The protocol also allows the CEDAW Committee an opportunity to own initiative investigate alleged violations of the rights contained in the Convention.
Yet despite the fact that Sweden's main motto is equality, as this works in practice.
The survey done by Amnesty believes that gender-based violence causes can be found in the prevailing gender power relations in society where men as a group have more power than women as a group. Men's violence against women also contributes to the gender power structure is maintained. Men's violence against women is different from country to country in terms of the scale of violence and the specific expression, but it is, according to Amnesty International's approach rather matter of degree rather than species differences. Male control over women's sexuality is another food source for gender-based violence, as well as stereotypical notions of what it means to be a woman and man. Men's violence against women in intimate relationships differ in several ways from other violent crime, partly through the woman's emotional relationship with the abuser and partly by the violence usually is planned, controlled and done in the home, protected from the outside world's view. Men's violence against women in intimate relationships can be described as a process of violence in different ways to normalize both the abusive man and the abused woman. For the woman means beating a gradual degradation and increasing isolation, which can be difficult for her to break away from the relationship. Many women make repeated attempts. That woman gets out of the relationship does not necessarily entail the cessation of violence. Rape within marriage / relationship is probably the most hidden form of violence against women in intimate relationships. The tendency to the police violent crime is particularly low in women who are subjected to violence by a related party. It is also when the woman come out of the relationship that she can name their experiences as violence. As with people who torture survivors suffer many women victims of domestic violence by prolonged trauma and may develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). According to Amnesty International's view, violence against women constitute torture for which the state is responsible when the violence is so serious and of such a nature as torture concept in international law implies, and when the state failed to live up to its obligations to provide a full protection. Men's violence against women in close relationships also affects thousands of children in Sweden, growing up in the shadow of the father's violence. Children who do not get beaten, but who are forced to witness how daddy beats and violates the mother and / or sister are exposed to psychological abuse. The children are forced to witness violence they can not prevent, can lead to the whole childhood is marked by feelings of powerlessness and fear.
Sweden is far behind in securing vulnerable woman.
7 nov 2019
In the past decade the number of women living in poverty has increased disproportionately to the number of men, particularly in the developing countries. The feminization of poverty has also recently become a significant problem in the countries with economies in transition as a short-term consequence of the process of political, economic and social transformation.
In addition to economic factors, the rigidity of socially ascribed gender roles and women's limited access to power, education, training and productive resources as well as other emerging factors that may lead to insecurity for families are also responsible.
The failure to adequately mainstream a gender perspective in all economic analysis and planning and to address the structural causes of poverty is also a contributing factor. Women contribute to the economy and to combating poverty through both remunerated and unremunerated work at home, in the community and in the workplace.
The empowerment of women is a critical factor in the eradication of povert While poverty affects households as a whole, because of the gender division of labour and responsibilities for household welfare, women bear a disproportionate burden, attempting to manage household consumption and production under conditions of increasing scarcity.
Poverty is particularly acute for women living in rural household Women's poverty is directly related to the absence of economic opportunities and autonomy, lack of access to economic resources, including credit, land ownership and inheritance, lack of access to education and support services and their minimal participation in the decision-making process.
Poverty can also force women into situations in which they are vulnerable to sexual exploitation. In too many countries, social welfare systems do not take sufficient account of the specific conditions of women living in poverty, and there is a tendency to scale back the services provided by such systems.
The risk of falling into poverty is greater for women than for men, particularly in old age, where social security systems are based on the principle of continuous remunerated employment. In some cases, women do not fulfil this requirement because of interruptions in their work, due to the unbalanced distribution of remunerated and unremunerated work.
Moreover, older women also face greater obstacles to labour-market re-entry. In many developed countries, where the level of general education and professional training of women and men are similar and where systems of protection against discrimination are available, in some sectors the economic transformations of the past decade have strongly increased either the unemployment of women or the precarious nature of their employment. The proportion of women among the poor has consequently increased.
In countries with a high level of school enrolment of girls, those who leave the educational system the earliest, without any qualification, are among the most vulnerable in the labour market. In countries with economies in transition and in other countries undergoing fundamental political, economic and social transformations, these transformations have often led to a reduction in women's income or to women being deprived of income.
Particularly in developing countries, the productive capacity of women should be increased through access to capital, resources, credit, land, technology, information, technical assistance and training so as to raise their income and improve nutrition, education, health care and status within the household. The release of women's productive potential is pivotal to breaking the cycle of poverty so that women can share fully in the benefits of development and in the products of their own labour. Sustainable development and economic growth that is both sustained and sustainable are possible only through improving the economic, social, political, legal and cultural status of women. Equitable social development that recognizes empowering the poor, particularly women, to utilize environmental resources sustainably is a necessary foundation for sustainable development.
The success of policies and measures aimed at supporting or strengthening the promotion of gender equality and the improvement of the status of women should be based on the integration of the gender perspective in general policies relating to all spheres of society as well as the implementation of positive measures with adequate institutional and financial support at all levels.
7 nov 2019
More than 1 billion people in the world today, the great majority of whom are women, live in unacceptable conditions of poverty, mostly in the developing countries.
Poverty has various causes, including structural ones. Poverty is a complex, multidimensional problem, with origins in both the national and international domains. The globalization of the world's economy and the deepening interdependence among nations present challenges and opportunities for sustained economic growth and development, as well as risks and uncertainties for the future of the world economy. The uncertain global economic climate has been accompanied by economic restructuring as well as, in a certain number of countries, persistent, unmanageable levels of external debt and structural adjustment programmes. In addition, all types of conflict, displacement of people and environmental degradation have undermined the capacity of Governments to meet the basic needs of their populations.
Transformations in the world economy are profoundly changing the parameters of social development in all countries. One significant trend has been the increased poverty of women, the extent of which varies from region to region. The gender disparities in economic power-sharing are also an important contributing factor to the poverty of women. Migration and consequent changes in family structures have placed additional burdens on women, especially those who provide for several dependants.
Macroeconomic policies need rethinking and reformulation to address such trends. These policies focus almost exclusively on the formal sector. They also tend to impede the initiatives of women and fail to consider the differential impact on women and men. The application of gender analysis to a wide range of policies and programmes is therefore critical to poverty reduction strategies. In order to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable development, women and men must participate fully and equally in the formulation of macroeconomic and social policies and strategies for the eradication of poverty.
The eradication of poverty cannot be accomplished through anti-poverty programmes alone but will require democratic participation and changes in economic structures in order to ensure access for all women to resources, opportunities and public services. Poverty has various manifestations, including lack of income and productive resources sufficient to ensure a sustainable livelihood; hunger and malnutrition; ill health; limited or lack of access to education and other basic services; increasing morbidity and mortality from illness; homelessness and inadequate housing; unsafe environments; and social discrimination and exclusion. It is also characterized by lack of participation in decision-making and in civil, social and cultural life. It occurs in all countries - as mass poverty in many developing countries and as pockets of poverty amidst wealth in developed countries.
Poverty may be caused by an economic recession that results in loss of livelihood or by disaster or conflict. There is also the poverty of low-wage workers and the utter destitution of people who fall outside family support systems, social institutions and safety nets.
7 nov 2019
Nothing is more damaging to your confidence and self-esteem than being in an emotionally abusive relationship.
Unlike physical abuse which rears its ugly head in dramatic outbursts, emotional abuse can be more insidious and elusive. In some cases, neither the abuser nor the victim are fully aware it's happening.
The most obvious scenario for emotional abuse is in an intimate relationship in which a man is the abuser and the woman is the victim. However, a variety of studies show that men and women abuse each other at equal rates.* In fact, emotional abuse can occur in any relationship - between parent and child, in friendships, and with relatives.
So what is emotional abuse? It involves a regular pattern of verbal offense, threatening, bullying, and constant criticism, as well as more subtle tactics like intimidation, shaming and manipulation. Emotional abuse is used to control and subjugate the other person, and quite often it occurs because the abuser has childhood wounds and insecurities they haven't dealt with - perhaps as a result of being abused themselves.
They didn't learn healthy coping mechanisms or how to have positive, healthy relationships. Instead, they feel angry, hurt, fearful and powerless.
Male and female abusers tend to have high rates of personality disorders including borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Although emotional abuse doesn't always lead to physical abuse, physical abuse is almost always preceded and accompanied by emotional abuse.*
The victim of the abuse quite often doesn't see the mistreatment as abusive. They develop coping mechanisms of denial and minimizing in order to deal with the stress. But the effects of long-term emotional abuse can cause severe emotional trauma in the victim, including depression, anxiety, and post traumatic stress disorder.
If you aren't sure what constitutes this damaging behavior, here are 30 signs of emotional abuse.
1. They humiliate you, put you down, or make fun of you in front of other people.
2. They regularly demean or disregard your opinions, ideas, suggestions, or needs.
3. They use sarcasm or "teasing" to put you down or make you feel bad about yourself.
4. They accuse you of being "too sensitive" in order to deflect their abusive remarks.
5. They try to control you and treat you like a child.
6. They correct or chastise you for your behavior.
7. You feel like you need permission to make decisions or go out somewhere.
8. They try to control the finances and how you spend money.
9. They belittle and trivialize you, your accomplishments, or your hopes and dream
10. They try to make you feel as though they are always right, and you are wrong.
11. They give you disapproving or contemptuous looks or body language.
12. They regularly point out your flaws, mistakes, or shortcomings.
13. They accuse or blame you of things you know aren't true.
14. They have an inability to laugh at themselves and can't tolerate others laughing at them.
15. They are intolerant of any seeming lack of respect.
16. They make excuses for their behavior, try to blame others, and have difficulty apologizing.
17. The repeatedly cross your boundaries and ignore your requests.
18. They blame you for their problems, life difficulties, or unhappiness.
19. They call you names, give you unpleasant labels, or make cutting remarks under their breath.
20. They are emotionally distant or emotionally unavailable most of the time.
21. They resort to pouting or withdrawal to get attention or attain what they want.
22. They don't show you empathy or compassion.
23. They play the victim and try to deflect blame to you rather than taking personal responsibility.
24. They disengage or use neglect or abandonment to punish or frighten you.
25. They don't seem to notice or care about your feelings.
26. They view you as an extension of themselves rather than as an individual.
27. They withhold sex as a way to manipulate and control.
28. They share personal information about you with others.
29. They invalidate or deny their emotionally abusive behavior when confronted.
30. They make subtle threats or negative remarks with the intent to frighten or control you.
7 nov 2019
Emotional abuse is elusive. Unlike physical abuse, the people doing it and receiving it may not even know it's happening.
It can be more harmful than physical abuse because it can undermine what we think about ourselves. It can cripple all we are meant to be as we allow something untrue to define us. Emotional abuse can happen between parent and child, husband and wife, among relatives and between friends.
The abuser projects their words, attitudes or actions onto an unsuspecting victim usually because they themselves have not dealt with childhood wounds that are now causing them to harm others.
In the following areas, ask these questions to see if you are abusing or being abused:
- Humiliation, degradation, discounting, negating. judging, criticizing: Does anyone make fun of you or put you down in front of others. Do they tease you, use sarcasm as a way to put you down or degrade you?When you complain do they say that "it was just a joke" and that you are too sensitive?Do they tell you that your opinion or feelings are "wrong?" Does anyone regularly ridicule, dismiss, disregard your opinions, thoughts, suggestions, and feelings?
- Domination, control, and shame: Do you feel that the person treats you like a child? Do they constantly correct or chastise you because your behavior is "inappropriate?" Do you feel you must "get permission" before going somewhere or before making even small decisions? Do they control your spending? Do they treat you as though you are inferior to them? Do they make you feel as though they are always right? Do they remind you of your shortcomings? Do they belittle your accomplishments, your aspirations, your plans or even who you are? Do they give disapproving, dismissive, contemptuous, or condescending looks, comments, and behavior?
- Accusing and blaming, trivial and unreasonable demands or expectations, denies own shortcomings: Do they accuse you of something contrived in their own minds when you know it isn't true? Are they unable to laugh at themselves? Are they extremely sensitive when it comes to others making fun of them or making any kind of comment that seems to show a lack of respect?Do they have trouble apologizing? Do they make excuses for their behavior or tend to blame others or circumstances for their mistakes? Do they call you names or label you? Do they blame you for their problems or unhappiness? Do they continually have "boundary violations" and disrespect your valid requests?
- Emotional distancing and the "silent treatment," isolation, emotional abandonment or neglect:Do they use pouting, withdrawal or withholding attention or affection? Do they not want to meet the basic needs or use neglect or abandonment as punishment? Do they play the victim to deflect blame onto you instead of taking responsibility for their actions and attitudes? Do they not notice or care how you feel? Do they not show empathy or ask questions to gather information?
- Codependence and enmeshment:Does anyone treat you not as a separate person but instead as an extension of themselves? Do they not protect your personal boundaries and share information that you have not approved? Do they disrespect your requests and do what they think is best for you? Do they require continual contact and haven't developed a healthy support network among their own peers?
7 nov 2019
Is it possible that you are being abused and not even know it?
Domestic violence is once again in the forefront of the news. This is in part due to abusive incidents with sports figures or celebrities that have become very public. Abuse is not always as obvious as being hit or shoved, called degrading names or cussed out. In fact, it can very well be underhanded or subtle.
You may find yourself feeling confused about the relationship, off balance or like you are "walking on eggshells" all the time. This is the kind of abuse that often sneaks up on you as you become more entrenched in the relationship. I am talking here about psychological abuse, which is also known as mental or emotional abuse.
Psychological abuse occurs when a person in the relationship tries to control information available to another person with intent to manipulate that person's sense of reality or their view of what is acceptable and unacceptable. Psychological abuse often contains strong emotionally manipulative content and threats designed to force the victim to comply with the abuser's wishes.
All abuse takes a severe toll on self-esteem. The abused person starts feeling helpless and possibly even hopeless. In addition, most mental abusers are adept at convincing the victim that the abuse is his/her fault. Somehow, the victim is responsible for what happened.
7 nov 2019
Woman abuse is any use of psychological, physical or sexual force, actual or threatened, in an intimate relationship. Intimate relationships include a current or former spouse, and an intimate, or dating partner. Violence is used to intimidate, humiliate or frighten victims, or to make them feel powerless.
Men can also be abused, but the term 'woman abuse' recognizes that women are most often the victims of abuse and men are most often the perpetrators.
Abuse against women occurs in families of all socioeconomic, educational and cultural backgrounds and is found in both rural and urban settings. Women in lesbian relationships can also be at risk for abuse.
The abuse may be a single act, but most often it occurs in a context where there is a pattern of assaultive and controlling behaviour. There may be a number of acts which appear minor when viewed in isolation, but collectively form a pattern that amounts to abuse. Typically, abuse escalates in frequency and/or severity. Once an abuser uses physical violence, they are likely to intensify their assaults and increase the woman's risk of harm and serious life-threatening injury.
No one form of abuse is worse than the others. Non-physical forms of abuse are as harmful to women as physical abuse. Tactics of control may appear gradually as coercive behaviours that are not be criminal in nature. This subtle process makes it very difficult for the woman, as well as friends, family or professionals to recognize it as abuse. Many women identify the emotional and psychological consequences of abuse as more damaging than the physical assaults. While emotional abuse can occur in the absence of physical abuse, the two often occur together.
7 nov 2019
Physical violence is, for example, be beaten, kicked, micro-filed, pushed and exposed to grip.
Sexual violence is to be forced to take part in, or look at, sexual acts against their will.
Material or economic violence is to break the family's things, personal belongings or childrens toys. It may also be to not decide over their own money.